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[[category: Lithography]]
 
[[category: Lithography]]
 
[[category: Recipes]]
 
[[category: Recipes]]
  +
__TOC__
{{WIP}}
 
   
Photolithography Recipes for the [[Maskless Aligner (Heidelberg MLA150)|Heidelberg MLA150]].
+
==[[Maskless Aligner (Heidelberg MLA150)]]==
  +
Photolithography Recipes for the [[Maskless Aligner (Heidelberg MLA150)|Heidelberg MLA150]]. All recipes were characterized on blank Silicon wafers. For different substrate coatings/materials, you will likely need to run a focus-exposure matrix ("series" exposure mode), using our params as a starting point.
   
  +
These recipes use the same spin and bake params as our contact aligner and stepper recipes, using built-in hotplates on the photoresist spinner benches.
== Positive Resist (MLA150) ==
 
General notes: Hotplates used, filters, laser wavelengths, etc.
 
   
  +
'''''Any I-Line PR is usable''''', although we only characterized a select few below. Run your own Focus-Exposure Matrix to characterize a new PR.
{| class="wikitable" border="1" style="border: 1px solid #D0E7FF; background-color:#ffffff; text-align:center;"
 
  +
  +
===Positive Resist (MLA150)===
  +
''We found that positive PR's worked well with the 405nm laser - the 375nm laser would likely also work. Sub-micron features are possible. Overexposure is recommended to avoid stitching and horiz/vert discrepancies, compensate using CD Bias [[MLA150 - Design Guidelines#High-Resolution Writing|as described here]].''
  +
  +
Note: calibrations done with the "HIMT design" will show higher dose, due to using only dark-field line/space patterns.
  +
  +
{| class="wikitable" style="border: 1px solid #D0E7FF; background-color:#ffffff; text-align:center;" border="1"
 
|- bgcolor="#D0E7FF"
 
|- bgcolor="#D0E7FF"
 
! width="100" |Resist
 
! width="100" |Resist
Line 14: Line 21:
 
! width="75" |Bake
 
! width="75" |Bake
 
! width="75" |Thickness
 
! width="75" |Thickness
  +
!Laser (nm)
! width="125" |Exposure Time
 
! width="100" |Focus Offset
+
! width="125" |Exposure Dose (mJ/cm<sup>2</sup>)
! width="75" |PEB
+
! width="100" |DeFocus
  +
!Rehydrate*
  +
! width="75" |PEB**
 
! width="100" |Developer
 
! width="100" |Developer
 
! width="125" |Developer Time
 
! width="125" |Developer Time
 
! width="300" |Comments
 
! width="300" |Comments
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Media:AXP4000pb-Datasheet.pdf|AZ4110]]
|SPR955CM0.9
 
|3 krpm/30”
+
|4 krpm, 30s
|95°C/60”
+
|95°C, 60s
|~ 0.9 um
+
|~ 1.1 µm
  +
|405
  +
|240
  +
|5
 
|
 
|
  +
|''none''
  +
|AZ400K:DI 1:4
  +
|50s
  +
|Used HIMT design (good for isolated lines 0.8-1um)
  +
|-
  +
  +
|[[Media:AXP4000pb-Datasheet.pdf|AZ4330]]
  +
|4 krpm, 30s
  +
|95°C, 60s
  +
|~ 3.3 µm
  +
|405
  +
|320
  +
|6
 
|
 
|
  +
|''none''
  +
|AZ400K:DI 1:4
  +
|90s
  +
|Used HIMT design
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:AXP4000pb-Datasheet.pdf|AZ4620]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:SPR220-Positive-Resist-Datasheet.pdf|SPR 220-3.0]]
  +
|2.5 krpm, 30s
  +
|115°C, 90s
  +
|~ 2.7 µm
  +
|405
  +
|325
  +
| - 4
 
|
 
|
  +
|115°C, 90s
 
|AZ300MIF
 
|AZ300MIF
  +
|60s
  +
|Used HIMT design. 0.6-0.9µm line/space.
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:SPR220-Positive-Resist-Datasheet.pdf|SPR 220-7.0]]
  +
|3.5 krpm, 30s
  +
|105°C/2min
  +
Cool 1min
  +
|~ 7.0µm
  +
|375
  +
|~550mJ
  +
| -20
  +
|>1hr
  +
|115°C, 90s
  +
|AZ300MiF
  +
|70s
  +
|Rehydration after exposure is necessary, to prevent bubbles at PEB.
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:SPR955-Positive-Resist-Datasheet.pdf|SPR 955-CM0.9]]
  +
|3 krpm, 30s
  +
|95°C, 90s
  +
|~ 0.9 µm
  +
|405
  +
|250
  +
| - 7
 
|
 
|
  +
|110°C, 90s
| align="left" |
 
  +
|AZ300MIF
*??
 
  +
|60s
*{{fl|SPR955CMstepperrecipe.pdf|See SPR955CM data file}}
 
  +
|Used HIMT design
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:3600 D, D2v Spin Speed Curve.pdf|THMR-3600HP]]
  +
|1.5 krpm, 45s;
  +
250 rpm/s
  +
|100°C, 60s
  +
|0.430µm
  +
|405
  +
|180–220
  +
|<nowiki>-4</nowiki>
  +
|
  +
|100°C, 60s
  +
|AZ300MiF
  +
|20s
  +
|~0.4nm line/space:
  +
  +
lower dose for clear-field, higher dose for dark-field.
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="12" |*''Rehydration'': After exposure, leave sample in lab air (ok to cover in tray, with tinfoil). Allows water vapor in air to diffuse into PR to complete chemical reaction.
  +
<nowiki>**</nowiki>''PEB: Post-exposure bake'': after exposure, before develop
 
|}
 
|}
== Negative Resist (MLA150) ==
 
General notes: Hotplates used, filters, laser wavelengths, etc.
 
   
  +
===Negative Resist (MLA150)===
{| class="wikitable" border="1" style="border: 1px solid #D0E7FF; background-color:#ffffff; text-align:center;"
 
  +
''We found that all the negative PR's we tested required the 375nm in order to be fully exposed with reasonable dose/time.''
  +
  +
{| class="wikitable" style="border: 1px solid #D0E7FF; background-color:#ffffff; text-align:center;" border="1"
 
|- bgcolor="#D0E7FF"
 
|- bgcolor="#D0E7FF"
 
! width="100" |Resist
 
! width="100" |Resist
Line 43: Line 139:
 
! width="75" |Bake
 
! width="75" |Bake
 
! width="75" |Thickness
 
! width="75" |Thickness
  +
!Laser (nm)
! width="125" |Exposure Time
 
  +
! width="125" |Exposure Dose (mJ/cm<sup>2</sup>)
  +
! width="100" |DeFocus
  +
! width="75" |PEB*
  +
! width="75" |Flood*
  +
! width="100" |Developer
  +
! width="125" |Developer Time
  +
! width="300" |Comments
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:AZ5214-Negative-Resist-Datasheet.pdf|AZ5214]]
  +
|6 krpm, 30s
  +
|95°C, 60s
  +
|~ 1.0 µm
  +
|375
  +
|35
  +
| - 5
  +
|110°C, 60s
  +
|60"
  +
|AZ300MIF
  +
|60s
  +
|Used UCSB design. Good for up to ~1.3um open line space.
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:AZnLOF2020-Negative-Resist-Datasheet.pdf|AZnLOF2020]]
  +
|4 krpm, 30s
  +
|110°C, 60s
  +
|~ 2.1µm
  +
|375
  +
|340
  +
| - 3
  +
|110°C, 60s
  +
|''none''
  +
|AZ300MIF
  +
|90s
  +
|Used UCSB design. Good for 2um open line space.
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:SU-8-2075-revA.pdf|SU-8 2075]]
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|~70µm
  +
|375
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|Extremely viscous. Pour into a wide-mouthed bottle, dispense directly from bottle. Replace napkin at end.
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="12" |*PEB: post-exposure bake. For AZ 5214-IR, this performs Image Reversal, and requires Flood Exposure with the [[Contact Aligner (SUSS MA-6)|MA6]] or [[Suss Aligners (SUSS MJB-3)|MJB]] aligner afterwards, before developing.
  +
|}
  +
  +
===Greyscale Lithography (MLA150)===
  +
''AZ4620 is the manufacturer-recommended PR for greyscale litho.''
  +
{| class="wikitable" style="border: 1px solid #D0E7FF; background-color:#ffffff; text-align:center;" border="1"
  +
|- bgcolor="#D0E7FF"
  +
! width="100" |Resist
  +
! width="100" |Spin Cond.
  +
! width="75" |Bake
  +
! width="75" |Thickness
  +
!Laser
  +
! width="125" |Exposure Dose (mJ/cm<sup>2</sup>)
 
! width="100" |Focus Offset
 
! width="100" |Focus Offset
  +
!Rehydrate*
! width="75" |PEB
 
  +
! width="75" |PEB**
 
! width="75" |Flood
 
! width="75" |Flood
 
! width="100" |Developer
 
! width="100" |Developer
 
! width="125" |Developer Time
 
! width="125" |Developer Time
  +
!Reflow***
 
! width="300" |Comments
 
! width="300" |Comments
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Media:Az p4620 photoresist data package.pdf|AZ4620]]
|AZ5214
 
|6 krpm/30”
+
|? krpm/30”
|95°C/60”
+
|95°C, 60”
  +
|
|~ 1.0 um
 
  +
|
  +
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
Line 60: Line 220:
 
|60"
 
|60"
 
|AZ300MIF
 
|AZ300MIF
|60"
+
|60s
  +
|
 
| align="left" |
 
| align="left" |
  +
*''TBD''
*???
 
  +
|-
  +
|[[Media:SPR220-Positive-Resist-Datasheet.pdf|SPR 220-7.0]]
  +
|3.5 krpm, 30s
  +
|105°C/2min
  +
Cool 1min
  +
|~ 7.0µm
  +
|375
  +
|~624mJ to clear large mm-area,
  +
520mJ to clear ~5µm lines.
  +
| -20
  +
|≥1hr
  +
|115°C, 90s
  +
| -
  +
|AZ300MiF
  +
|70s
  +
|TBD
  +
|Rehydration after exposure is necessary, to prevent bubbles at PEB.
  +
Stitching leaves ridges in Y-direction with ~5% height of removed PR depth. Can be reduced via reflow.
  +
  +
Author Credit: Patrick Curtis, 2022 & Biljana Stamenic 2023 & Demis D. John 2023
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="14" |*''Rehydration'': After exposure, leave sample in lab air (ok to cover in tray, with tinfoil). Allows water vapor in air to diffuse into PR to complete chemical reaction.
  +
<nowiki>**</nowiki>''PEB: Post-exposure bake'': after exposure, before develop
  +
  +
<nowiki>***</nowiki>''Reflow'': To smooth out stitching lines. Will change sharp vertical profiles considerably, only good for gradually-sloped profiles.
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 13:01, 14 June 2023

Maskless Aligner (Heidelberg MLA150)

Photolithography Recipes for the Heidelberg MLA150. All recipes were characterized on blank Silicon wafers. For different substrate coatings/materials, you will likely need to run a focus-exposure matrix ("series" exposure mode), using our params as a starting point.

These recipes use the same spin and bake params as our contact aligner and stepper recipes, using built-in hotplates on the photoresist spinner benches.

Any I-Line PR is usable, although we only characterized a select few below. Run your own Focus-Exposure Matrix to characterize a new PR.

Positive Resist (MLA150)

We found that positive PR's worked well with the 405nm laser - the 375nm laser would likely also work. Sub-micron features are possible. Overexposure is recommended to avoid stitching and horiz/vert discrepancies, compensate using CD Bias as described here.

Note: calibrations done with the "HIMT design" will show higher dose, due to using only dark-field line/space patterns.

Resist Spin Cond. Bake Thickness Laser (nm) Exposure Dose (mJ/cm2) DeFocus Rehydrate* PEB** Developer Developer Time Comments
AZ4110 4 krpm, 30s 95°C, 60s ~ 1.1 µm 405 240 5 none AZ400K:DI 1:4 50s Used HIMT design (good for isolated lines 0.8-1um)
AZ4330 4 krpm, 30s 95°C, 60s ~ 3.3 µm 405 320 6 none AZ400K:DI 1:4 90s Used HIMT design
AZ4620
SPR 220-3.0 2.5 krpm, 30s 115°C, 90s ~ 2.7 µm 405 325 - 4 115°C, 90s AZ300MIF 60s Used HIMT design. 0.6-0.9µm line/space.
SPR 220-7.0 3.5 krpm, 30s 105°C/2min

Cool 1min

~ 7.0µm 375 ~550mJ -20 >1hr 115°C, 90s AZ300MiF 70s Rehydration after exposure is necessary, to prevent bubbles at PEB.
SPR 955-CM0.9 3 krpm, 30s 95°C, 90s ~ 0.9 µm 405 250 - 7 110°C, 90s AZ300MIF 60s Used HIMT design
THMR-3600HP 1.5 krpm, 45s;

250 rpm/s

100°C, 60s 0.430µm 405 180–220 -4 100°C, 60s AZ300MiF 20s ~0.4nm line/space:

lower dose for clear-field, higher dose for dark-field.

*Rehydration: After exposure, leave sample in lab air (ok to cover in tray, with tinfoil). Allows water vapor in air to diffuse into PR to complete chemical reaction.

**PEB: Post-exposure bake: after exposure, before develop

Negative Resist (MLA150)

We found that all the negative PR's we tested required the 375nm in order to be fully exposed with reasonable dose/time.

Resist Spin Cond. Bake Thickness Laser (nm) Exposure Dose (mJ/cm2) DeFocus PEB* Flood* Developer Developer Time Comments
AZ5214 6 krpm, 30s 95°C, 60s ~ 1.0 µm 375 35 - 5 110°C, 60s 60" AZ300MIF 60s Used UCSB design. Good for up to ~1.3um open line space.
AZnLOF2020 4 krpm, 30s 110°C, 60s ~ 2.1µm 375 340 - 3 110°C, 60s none AZ300MIF 90s Used UCSB design. Good for 2um open line space.
SU-8 2075 ~70µm 375 Extremely viscous. Pour into a wide-mouthed bottle, dispense directly from bottle. Replace napkin at end.
*PEB: post-exposure bake. For AZ 5214-IR, this performs Image Reversal, and requires Flood Exposure with the MA6 or MJB aligner afterwards, before developing.

Greyscale Lithography (MLA150)

AZ4620 is the manufacturer-recommended PR for greyscale litho.

Resist Spin Cond. Bake Thickness Laser Exposure Dose (mJ/cm2) Focus Offset Rehydrate* PEB** Flood Developer Developer Time Reflow*** Comments
AZ4620 ? krpm/30” 95°C, 60” 60" AZ300MIF 60s
  • TBD
SPR 220-7.0 3.5 krpm, 30s 105°C/2min

Cool 1min

~ 7.0µm 375 ~624mJ to clear large mm-area,

520mJ to clear ~5µm lines.

-20 ≥1hr 115°C, 90s - AZ300MiF 70s TBD Rehydration after exposure is necessary, to prevent bubbles at PEB.

Stitching leaves ridges in Y-direction with ~5% height of removed PR depth. Can be reduced via reflow.

Author Credit: Patrick Curtis, 2022 & Biljana Stamenic 2023 & Demis D. John 2023

*Rehydration: After exposure, leave sample in lab air (ok to cover in tray, with tinfoil). Allows water vapor in air to diffuse into PR to complete chemical reaction.

**PEB: Post-exposure bake: after exposure, before develop

***Reflow: To smooth out stitching lines. Will change sharp vertical profiles considerably, only good for gradually-sloped profiles.